Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics—wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.
"Protocol for direct counterfactual quantum communication" (бесплатно: https://arxiv.org/abs/1206.2042 )
It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel between two parties in empty
space, “Alice” and “Bob”, physical particles have to travel between them. Here, using the “chained”
quantum Zeno effect, we show how, in the ideal asymptotic limit, information can be transferred
between Alice and Bob without any physical particles traveling between them.
А вот еще нечто в тему:
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants.
Пока не разбирался, и не уверен, что смогу разобраться. Но надо бы, по идее. Crosspost: dreamwidth.org